Eszterházy Károly College Faculty of Natural Sciences
Pliocene woody brown coal
Middle Miocene woody brown coal
Middle Miocene brown coal
Oligocene brown coal
Eocene brown coal
Cretaceous brown coal
Liassic black coal
Hungary's only black coal occurrence is in the Mecsek Mountains. Most of the coal is suitable for coking. The colonies were formed in the Lower Jurassic (Liassic) age, and had a paralic nature. The thickness of the sedimentary sequence of coal deposits can reach 900 meters near Pécs, the number of colonies exceeding 5 meters thickness is over 170. The mining industry started in the late 1700s and operated for 200 years. The majority of mine pit gas was dangerous due to accumulation of methane. The main centers of mining were Pecs, Komló, Szászvár, Máza, Nagymányok. The mine in Komló closed in 2000.
The Upper Cretaceous lignite coal seams occur in three plant groups near Ajka. The lower seams contain the highest quality brown coal. The interesting mineral of the middle seams is called " ajkait ", which is actually amber. The top seam includes a lower quality brown coal. The brown coal seams of Ajka are characterized by high uranium concentration. Mining ceased in the 1980s.
The limnic origin brown coal in Észak-Dunántúl is characterised by fractured mechanism. The mining industry began to rise in the late 1700s.
The main centers of mining were Tatabánya, Dorog, Tokod, Balinka, Dudar, Oroszlány, Nagyegyháza, Csordakút, Mány (in Mány mining ceased at the end of 2004). In the last three occurances coal is installed directly on bauxite, so in some of the tunnels, both were mined. The "Eocene program", a large-scale exploration took place in the early 1980s, whereby mine development and recovery plans were created for coal assets. However, many environmental problems are associated with mining. Due to underground mining the collapse of the surface and subsidence has occurred.
As karst water intrusion was extremely dangerous for mining, intense pumping had to be carried out, which lead to the drying up of water sources, difficulties in municipal water supply. The amount and distribution of coal seams did not confirm the plans. For these reasons, in the 1990s, the mining industry was increasingly suppressed, today only a few small mines are operating.
The brown coal seams in Northern Hungary (in Nógrád, Borsod county) were formed in the lower-middle Miocene and has limnic characteristics (Figure 2). Mining industry began in the mid-1800s, nowadays there are only a few mines with smaller capacity.
As the mining karst water intrusion was extremely dangerous, intense pumping was carried out, leading to the resources dwindle, municipal water supply difficulties. The amount and distribution of coal seams nor confirmed the plans. For these reasons, in the 1990s, the mining industry is increasingly suppressed, is now only a few small mining operation.
The brown coal seams in Northern Hungary (Nógrád, Borsod county) to the lower-middle Miocene arose limnic character (Figure 2). The mining industry began in the mid-1800s, but nowadays there are also some smaller mining capacity.
Figure 2. Brown coal seams in the mining excavation on the bocsonya side in Sajólászlófalva (Photo by David Arpad)
Lower Miocene brown coal seams located in Brennbergbánya are on the western part of the Sopron Mountains. A series of coal seams installed on the eroded surface of the Paleozoic crystalline base mountain. Hungary's first coal mine began operating in 1759 in this field. Today, a museum presents the circumstances of the old mining.
There is mid-Miocene lignite occurrence in Várpalota. Mining started in the second half of the 1800s. From the 1960s the Inota power plant and aluminum smelter used the lignitet hat was mined here. Also Miocene lignite is mined in the Mecsek Mountains, near Hidas.
The Pannon-aged lignite in Mátra and Bükkalja were created in the swampy regions of the prolate Pannonian inland foreshore. The area compared to the other domestic coal seam has extremely high reserves available. The estimated lignite wealth is more than 3 billion tons, while other domestic resource occurrences had million magnitude. Mining is done by open-cast mining. Mining areas must be continuously drained because the water level is above the level of mining. The centers of mining is Visonta and Bükkábrány. The mine of Bükkábrány was opened in 1985. The Pannonian lignites have high economic importance because they are currently the country's cheapest energy source. Electricity is obtained from lignite in the Visonta power plant.
West of Szombathely to Austria Pannonian lignite is occurring similar to mátra and bükkalja lignite which is mined by open-cast mining at Torony. Which is also the foreshore sediments of the Pannonian inland sea. Its advantage compared to the previous occurrences is that most of the plants above the water table, and its more thicker than the Matra and Bükkalja lignites.