Eszterházy Károly College Faculty of Natural Sciences
The peaceful use of nuclear energy gain large enthusiasm after World War II. Economically is very efficient that’s why it had high popularity. Between 1960 and 1980 hundreds of nuclear power plants have been put into operation, which contributed to the economic recovery (Fig. 6). Later the major accidents were ended their trust of nuclear power. After the 1986 Chernobyl disaster until the 2000’s non of the developed countries have been submitted license application for a new reactor, also a number of power plants had shut down. Today the nuclear energy can be a solution due to the limitation of fossil fuels and pollution problems, it can save us from energy dependence as well. The nuclear industry means major risks with the mining of uranium, process of energy production and the unsafe waste management. Today for supporters of nuclear energy, nuclear power generation is considered as a solution to the climate change, seeking to paint the huge dangers of the industry into green. Another threat is that nuclear technology and nuclear materials spread around the world, it is easy to access for terrorists, and for unreliable countries, nuclear plants can easily become a target for terrorists as well. The negative effects of the risk factors overriding the environmentally friendly and economical properties in the view of nuclear energy field. In addition to the energy use the use of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes extends to the use of health care, industry, agriculture, scientific research and education as well. All nuclear reactors uses uranium as fuel. The uranium is a radioactive metal and occurs all over the world. The ore contains only a very small amount of it for the widespread reactors needs, so it must be enriched. There are some areas where the uranium concentration is much larger and economically exploitable. There are such sites typically in Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan and Russia, these countries give the major part of world’s production. The mining of uranium just like in case of coal, depending on the depth of the layer, exploited in mines or at strip mines. The natural uranium has two isotopes, consists of the mixture of uranium-235 (235U), and uranium-238 (238U). Only the 235U isotope is capable for the fission process, a result of which the energy is released in the reactors.
In Hungary there are uranium ores which are worth the extraction in: Mecsek Mountains(Jakabhegy, Kővágószőlős, Bakonya, Kővágótöttös, Hetvehely) occurs on the border zone of Lower Triassic and Upper Permian thick gray and red arkóza. The coal’s plant material has significant role int he reduction and fixation of the uranium. Recent studies have shown that uranium have been found around Bátaszék in the Pannonian sandstone. In addition in our country, we have found small concentrations at the Balaton-Highlands. Indications of uranium occur in Fertőrákos and Bükkszentkereszt.