Eszterházy Károly College Faculty of Natural Sciences
Permian red sandstone
It is a fresh-water sedimenting sandstone, what was formed in warm climatic conditions in the upper – Permian and in the lower-Triassic era. Its iron-oxide content causes its reddish colour. It occurs in the Highland of Lake Balaton and in the Mecsek mountain. The major centres of mining were next to Balatonalmádi, Révfülöp, Pécs.
Standstone of the Hárs-hill
This sandstone engendered in the lower – Oligocene, it is a fluvial, foreshore, facieses, yellowish-grey-coloured, flinty adhesive sandstone. It is used for footing and fencing. It is widespread in the Hills of Buda and in the Pilis Mountain, it is mined in the environment of Pilisborosjenő and Esztergom.
This white limestone - that is rich in ancient remnants and was formed in the Baden division of the Miocene, during swallow marine conditions, - was a fancied construction stone for more centuries. It was given its name after the Lajta-creek what flows near Sopron. Its most famous mine spot was at Fertőrákos.
Sarmatian broad limestone
It deposed in the Sarmatian division of the upper Miocene, in the foreshore segment of the reduced salt-watered, inland sea, it is rich in ancestor remains, with bioclast pebble and sand content. Its largest mine has been functioning at Sóskút.
Liparie tuff, liparite,rhyolite
Liparite tuff - which broke the surface in the Miocene by explosive volcanism - is a widespread domestic stone-type. It is porous and easy to carve but it is less long lasting than diatomaceous sandstones. It is a fancied and frequently used construction stone in North – Hungary. It has been mining especially in the Zemplén Mountain and in the hereabouts of Miskolc and Eger. Rhyolite is harder and of higher-strengths it is rather used for footing configuration. The liparite that is mined in Gyöngyössolymos is applied as a face-stone thanks to its fine purple colour.
Jurassic red limestone
It is the favourite domestic trim-stone, that is referred to as „red marble”, but this stone did not get over metamorphosis. It has red colour owing to its iron-oxide content, it has decorative patterns plus it is easy to polish. Ammonites residues frequently can be found in this limestone .Its most significant mine spot is the stone-breaker of Tardos, besides it has been mining near Piszke , Tata and Zirc.
Limestone of Siklós
Known as the „marble of Siklós” in fact it is a limestone from the Jurassic era. It is a mulatto-white stained stone, its polished surface show nice patterns. It is mined in the Villány-Mountain, near Siklós.
Limestone of Rakaca
This marble derives from the Carboniferous period, it is white-grey striped, and it has come through a slight metamorphosis. It has been mining in the Szendrő-Mountain, in Rakaca municipality.
Spring limestone or known as travertino is a porous stone that has been existing as a beloved construction or decoration stone from the ancient Roman times.
It is most common in the Buda mountain where it sprang out from the predecessors of thermal springs, - from the so-called warm-water uprushing - during the Pleistocene era.
Algae and plant lives have promoted that separation, and the structures of those living creatures may often be recognized in the stones. The principal mining sites are Süttő, Budakalász, Dunaalmás (Figure 8.)
Prosperous geological circumstances have given birth to the outstanding amount of artesian waters. The number of artesian waters exceeds 50 000 waters in the region. Artesian waters which arrive from greater depth resurface as thermal springs warmer than 25 Celsius degree. In the course of the formation of the earth structure of the region the earth’s crust underneath the Carpathian basin has relatively attenuated, therefore high-temperature earth’s mantle has come closer to the surface.Its thickness is between 23-27 km in the region. Presumably deep flows in the mantle have resulted in the taper of the crust. The measure of the geothermal gradient is relatively large in our country 6-8 C/100 m. As a result of this the temperature of waters arrive from large depth may reach 70-90°C (CityPark-1250 m, 76°C; Zalakaros 2370 m, 96°C).
Hot subsoil and high rock temperature are not satisfactory for emerging thermal springs. For that emerging such rocks and formations are needed which are able to keep and transmit water, they are called water-contributes. Statements those have been formed in the course of the geologic evolution development of the Carpathian basin provide correspondent circumstances to this. As a matter of fact there is not a single segment in Hungary where good water-contributes featured formations would not occur under the surface.
As a consequence of geothermal facilities- the temperature of the waters - those are stored in those formations- are proportionally cumulative to the increase of the deepness. These waters possess precious mineral substance content (carbonated, ferriferous, aluminous, iodic, sulphoruos waters), consequently they are excellently suitable for medical purposes.