Eszterházy Károly College Faculty of Natural Sciences
Table of Contents
Available healthy water, together with soil - as the fundamental sources of life - are the most important among surface natural resources. In point of the ground original plant communities appearing on divergent soil types or crops which mean concurrences for plants.
In the field of sustainable landscape utilization offers and principles of the NATURA 2000 programme will have been mentioned, too. The two groups of above-ground resources the wind and sun energy relating usability examples will have been introduced.
Water, - as a fundamental natural resource - is indispensable for living beings, and it is an irreplaceable resource which occurs in the largest mass. Under natural circumstances, even beside the same latitude, water may occur in more aggregate phase. It is one of the elements of biosphere; it is the building stone of the 70-80 percent of living organisms.
Physical properties of water:
High melting and congelation point
Its specific heat is larger than of any other knows substances (foundational role in climate formation)
It has large melting and vaporization heat
Its density is the greater on 4°C degree as a result; living waters do not freeze up from the bottom
It has large surface tension
It is a relatively good thermal insulator
The 29, 2 percentage of the Earth’s surface is mainland; 71 percents are seas and oceans, over and above the lakes and rivers which located within the continent.
Stock of water
97 percentage of the water supply of the Earth is ocean, ( in average there are 35 gramme salt in 1 litre of seawater) ; Freshwater 3 % ( 69 percentage of this derives from glaciers, snow, and ice.) Something like 20 percentages of the freshwater stocks may have been found in the tectonic watercourse of the Lake Baikal. If the frozen water melts, the sea level would rise with 66 metres. About three hundredth parts percentage of the total stock of water of the Earth is freshwater. The water balance of the whole of the Earth is balanced, namely the amount of rainfall and the measure of vaporization are globally equal. The Earth‘ supply of water may have been regarded to constant through a longer period, however this balance is only valid globally. In places where the amount of annual vaporization exceeds the quantum of annual rainfall, there we can talk about negative water balanced, water deficient areas
(deserts, semi-deserts, but it even occurs on the lowland sections of our county., however the onflow degree somehow alleviates the becoming drying.) We can talk about territories of positive water balance if the rainfall formation and onflow exceed the amount of vaporization.
Water, with its constant circulation put basic regulation to the geographical environment. As demand toward water increase, in biggest part of the world water has been appraised as natural resource, thus water supply is developed with significant capital expenditures. As a result of the quick claim increase towards water, shortage - occurs in a growing number of areas - could only be resolved with difficult water supplementation.