Eszterházy Károly College Faculty of Natural Sciences
NATURA 2000 territories - which have been created by the European Union - are the units of such a coherent European ecological network, which serves as buffer zones for the remanence of relict species and for the preservation of original soil types. It is such a green infrastructure, which provides the ecosystem services of the natural habitats of Europe, as well as provides the preservation of their good condition. The found of the NATURE 2000 network is the Birds Directive of the year of 1979, or rather the codified version which have replaced the Bird Directive in 2009, respectively the Habitats Directive of the year of 1992. The whole network covers something like 17 percentage of the mainland territories of Europe, this approximately equals to the territory of Germany.
According to the European nature conversation regulation the Birds and Habitat Directive are:
The objective of the Birds Directive which has been accepted in 1979, is to provide defence for every wild bird race and to their most important habitats. This directive forbids certain activities- such as native birds kept in cavity and their sale, or the slaughtering of animals indiscriminately. – besides these, the directive has been launching such legal regulative to other activities ( e. g. hunting) , which provides their sustainability. This directive obliges the 27 member states, to protect territories which are highlighted important for migratory birds and for the more than 190, especially endangered species, with special attention to the wetland habitats of international importance.
Habitat Directive has been accepted by the European Union n 1992. This directive, similarly to the measures involved in the Birds Directive orders about the preservation of Europe’s wildlife, but it expands to the much wider circle of rare, endangered, endemic species, to more than thousand animal- and plant species. The preservation of habitats appears here for the first time as an individual objective, which means the protection of quasi 230 rare and characteristic habitat types. (European Union.)
These two directives are generous environment protection initiations, which were ever born for the sake of preserving our natural heritage in the whole territory of the European union. Hungary has contracted with its joining to the European Union to integrate the Union law and order to its domestic regulation It has happened this way relating to natural protection regulations, from the very moment of our joining the two European Union directives, both the two Union directives (The Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive ) are valid.
This means that our county was obliged to designate areas for the sake of the protection of natural habitats of communal significance, or animal and plant, thus they have become parts of the NATURA 2000, the ecological network of the European Union. The conception of the network can be concluded even from it denomination: it is a more or less related chain of valuable natural areas, habitats, which preserve the genuine European Wildlife.
Due to this designation nearly 21 percentages of the area of our county has become NATURA 2000 areas. Almost all of our originally protected areas have been added to the network, but in addition, further, about 1.2 million hectare territory is given Union protection. It is no wonder then, that among these there are agricultural territories, grasslands, lakes, rivers and forest in large percentage, where farming has been taking place for centuries.
Figure 13. Territories of NATURA 2000 in Hungary Source: www.natura.2000.hu/index.php?p=termegorze&nyelv=hun
Unmitigated “wilderness” rarely can be found in Europe, the picture of the land has been forming by humanity for such a long time, that even the majority of habitats which are considered to be natural, in some way or other, preserves the trace of the hands of human. For this reason it is especially true in Europe, that the complicated relationship, which connects men with nature, and the variety of domestic animal and bred plants, the divergent land use practices are the determining elements of biological diversity.
Consequently, the role of farmers and the sustaining traditional farming methods are especially emphasized in the protection of NATURA 2000 areas In general, it could be said that the with the NATURA 2000 network instead of reservation-like defence, a protection – which is based on the harmonisation of social, cultural, economic and natural conversation interests- may put to the forefront.
One of the most important natural resource of Hungary is the agricultural soil, a fertility of which is strongly influenced by its quality: its psychical , chemical characteristics and its origin ( its soil forming rock) as well as the method of usage and economy. Considering its soil aptitudes Hungary is fortunate agrarian situation country, where silviculture has at least the same role as agriculture has. It can be decided with a simple, suspension pH measurement, of a given soil type is suitable for which plant
Figure 14. Optimal soil chemical aptitudes for divergent kinds of industrial crops ( on the basis of Balázs, 2010.
The translation of the table can be found in the attached Excel table.
The ruling soil types of Hungary belongs to the meadowing or in other words steppe type and their fertility , their value are defined in a scale from 1 to 1000. This contains the value number of soil science (pedology) (I mean the soil type itself is named: rendzina, ABET, csernozjom, szolonyec and so on) , and the nature geographical coefficient ( bedrock, rainfall, water endowment ) which gives the value number itself. The value number of domestic soils may be read out from the following map.
Another soil classification viewpoint is the gold crown values that has become outworn nowadays, where from 0 to 17 fertility is weak, from 17 to 25 fertility is good, and above 25 we may talk about soils of excellent fertility.
Definition of low-yielding soils gets the so-called less-favoured areas categorization, since they complies with at least one of the undermentioned criteria:
The exaggerated acidity of the soil: the level of acidity (pH) exceeds the value of 4,5, which restricts the fertility of the soil.
a the extreme salt content of the soil (alkalinity): the exaggerated level of natrium salts (over 0,15 percent ) has similar impact in the upper layer of the soil, as the acidity, exclusively halophyte plants may be produced and only besides momentous production decrease.
extrém vízgazdálkodási körülmények: a gyenge vízáteresztő és erős vízvisszatartó tulajdonságú talajok jelentős hátrányt jelentenek a növénytermesztés számára, mivel rendszeresen elöntésre kerülnek, ami a termés és a nyereségesség csökkenését eredményezi,
extreme water management circumstances: soils with low permeability and strong water retention characteristics means a purposeful disadvantage for plant cultivation, since they are regularly flooded what results in harvest and profitably decrease.
extreme physical soil attributes: thick clay- and easy sand soils significantly restrict the profitability and output of crops, furthermore they means disadvantage for the aspect of the further soil cultivation.