Eszterházy Károly College Faculty of Natural Sciences
During the examination of principles for the development of regional plans, they mentioned several times taking into account concrete, local resources, and based on the use of design recommendations. In the basic types of community planning, the professional literature distinguishes allocative, innovative and radical design. The allocative planning serve a narrow priority compliance, it is seeking to a comprehensive and schematic nature. Both in EU and in our country, this kind of framework plans mean, the main direction of regional planning, in general. Bürökrative, generalized nature and in my opinion, only in the strategic planning of larger territorial units, and in the designation of main direction, have reason for existance, at local levels, to be effective, the innovative design approach is forward-looking. The innovative design also called as development-oriented base model, appears emphatically as the feature on resource mobilization. This means that the designer is searching for resources for new tasks, institution, so it offers an innovative form of implement, based on local resources. This procedure is very similar to the operation of market-based businesses, which are seeking to the adaptation and flexibility caused by new challenges. The third design approach which serves best for building on regional/local resources, and provides wide space and flexible solutions for the desinger, is the radical design. The latter is able to abandon the previous conventions, and establish new basis for the directions of economic development in a given georaphical unit.The approach of LEADER development of the Europen Union is fundamentally exhibits sameness towards radical design. The most important characteristics of radical design:
The „established order”, criticism of such practice (or customary habits).
Generating new knowledge, the development of alternative proposals ("transcendental").
The development of action tactics and strategies.
"Knowledge" dissemination, search for Allies.
Collision with the established order, the existing institutions.
In case of success expansion. (Farago 2003)
The regional planning process is made up of three main sections and a total of 10 steps are realized. (Figure 1)
Figure 27. Figure small regional / sub-regional level planning stages (Source: KÁPOSZTA 2010, VALLEÉ et.al 2012 – own compilation)
The first design stage is the preparation, which contanis the first two steps of the planning mechanisms. The first step is targeting the mapping of regional development actor’s expectations, using the logical framework structure. The second step covers the situation and document analysis of the wider environment, community, at national and regional level.
The third step is the backbone of analyis of the situation in small regions which is the the overall assessment of region facilities. It discusses the regional and local potentials in compley system, which are creating a regional strategy plan as a resource as a factor shown:
Social environment and human resources
Infrastructure, facilities of the institutional area
Settlement Network, assessing cohesion relations
The characteristics of resources, quantity and quality status are the starting points and the determining factors of the vision outline, the related programs, and strategies. The analysis which are belongs to individual resources- without the need of completeness- covering the following areas: endowments of the region's rating, as you can see above it includes several topics, as an integral part of the social environment as well as human resources analysis. Before delving into the description of the elements belonging to the test, be sure to feel the need of quality of life, living conditions and quality of life covers a discussion.
The quality of life in regional planning is more of a soft condition, basically because it is not the local society, but rather the individual who is at the center of the examination, and basically the psychology, sociology and medicine is it’s study area. (Fig. 28)
1.area: friends and family relations; 2. area: emotional well-being; 3.area: Health; 4. area: financial well-being; 5. area: (the feeling of) Belonging to the local community; 6. area: Work and activity; 7. area: Personal security; 8. area: The quality of environment; inputs of quality of life
The living conditions in terms of the design concept is much more practical because they involve regional conditions and factors that determine the daily life of the local community. These regional systems of law (rights and obligations of the society), the measurement of prosperity dependent on meeting needs (eg: Maslow's pyramid).
Regional development and contributes to the development of sub-regional levels are essential a model, Imre Lengyel's model of regional competitiveness, which factors are critical determinants of an area's well-being, and quality of life. (Figure 29)
Level of quality of life;
regional, territorial and urban income;
labor productivity; employment
research and development; infrastructure and human capital; foreign investment; small and medium-sized compenies; institutional and co-capital
economic structure; culture of innovation; regional accessibility; preparedness of the workforce; social structure; decision-making centers; The quality of the environment; social cohesion of the region
The analysis of the social environment and the human resources chiefly concentrates on demographic relations namely to the different factors listed by the KSH (General Statistics Office) without the claim for completeness: the trend of demography, ingenuous multiplication, migration, composition according to age and gender, health statement of the population and so on.
The forthcoming important component is the conformation of employment and unemployment relations, I mean the trend of unemployment and permanent unemployment, the distribution of the employed according to branches, conformation of the number of employers, repartition of the unemployed accordance with qualification and age, number of commuters. In order to be able to define the power of regional economy development and size up the prosperity and income proportions, the subsequent issues are excessively important: what sort of income relations the economically active population has, how much is the solvent demand in the region, how the regional consumer basket is being built up.
Assay on the subjective sense of security and delinquency geography of the region is an inevitably factor in defining the social environment.
Economic basis: it is the position of the territory in a given economic scope, the conformation of the economic structure, the agricultural production and sale, commerce, tourism, building industry, product processor capacities and its spatial location status.
During the examination of the economic basis, which is the base of the territorial income creating, it is important that the major economic branches and the developmental trends of those branches are concerned, together with the external and internal relations of the branches, and the statement of infrastructure. It is offered to carry out the evaluation of the settlement factors, the innovation potential of the region and the economic competitiveness of the economy.
It is primary important to enumerate the influencing factors of the quality of environment and nature as an element: such as landscape classification, climate and soil capacity, types of soils, topographic proportions, farming branch, fauna and flora, water supply and so on. The incidental weaker quality of these conditions and coefficients carries unsolved problems
Endowments of the geographical environment: When analysing the endowments of the environment in itself, otherwise e.g. in a point of tourism and recreation and could be utilized.
Historical and cultural facilities: assay on cultural heritage, disclose traditions, dissections concerning lifestyle , status of the traditional handicraft and small-scale activities, all could be important factors of the local resource of the region.
Infrastructure, institutional supply of the area: in the course of the evaluation of territorial facilities, both infrastructural and regional institutional supply have to be taken into consideration consequently all the sanitary, social, educational, cultural, housing, recreational, sport, commercial, service and administrating institutional supply of the populace and their emerging claims.
Settlement network, evaluation of the territorial cohesion: Finally is it comes to the estimation of settlement netting and cohesion relations, since the future developmental turns of the region are firmly dependent on the lobby power of the leading settlement, and on the quality and depths of the cooperation among settlements.
As a result of the assay on the previously mentioned resources or rather respects on the one hand the impacts respect to the region and the aptitudes of the region have to be summed up and estimated, occurring problems, their correspondence and their impact have to be proportioned as well as the concerned group of the emerging weaknesses and necessities have to be defined. Accordingly first and last the definition of the trends of the regional development strategy get ready.
Furthermore in the evolving stage of the strategy, in the sixth step, the methodological approach of the realization of the regional development is conceived, which unambiguously happens towards the sustainable economic and natural environment in a subregional scope category.
Quality assurance, as a seventh step, approaches the issue of resources through the presentation and analysis of the expected result of the programs, projects.
Economic, social, natural environmental, as well as territorial impacts stand in the focus of the impact assessment, considering their interferences and feedbacks, furthermore timing.
Resulting from its trait it could be used to measure the overall success or failure of the developmental strategy.