Eszterházy Károly College Faculty of Natural Sciences
Table of Contents
Innovation and product developmental processes are of high priority for the sake of increasing market share.
The professional elaboration and carry out of the consumption promoting marketing plus the logical planning of a concerned project are necessary for manufacturing a product or develop a service or joining the two. The management level criteria of reaching the market will be introduced by utilizing the devices of the project management. The issues of price determination and the channels of marketing communication will also be mentioned.
The first theoretical explanation for innovation was firstly published in the work of Joseph Alois Schumpeter. According to his opinion innovation is the combination of such factors of production those mean the engine of the economic development.
The undermentioned types of innovation were distinguished by Schumpeter:
Introduction of a new product, introduction of a new method of manufacturing, opening a new market, acquiring new sources of raw-material or semi-finished products, industry reorganisation.
The definition of innovation that is used today is given by the Frascati handbook:
„Innovation is the transformation /reconstruction of an idea to a newly introduced product on market or to the updated product, or to the new or improved procedure in an industry or commerce, or possibly a new approach to some social service.”
As an influence of the researches of the year 2000 this meaning has been modified and today it also involves organisational-institutional as well as marketing-innovation. The organisational –institutional innovation means the realization of a new method in the operation of a certain company, organising new work process, as well as reducing general costs in business contacts or in improving the general satisfaction in workplaces, or the more effective appropriation of company knowledge.
Marketing innovation means the application of new marketing methods for the sake of reaching business success ,which indicate significant modification in the definition of product conception, in shaping the packaging, in product stepping out to the market, in advertising activities of the product as well as in pricing methods.
Thus the major goal is sale increasing through the exclusive management of the satisfaction of consumer demands, opening new markets, or new product entering to a new segment of the market, since innovation processes occur as key-importance factors of successfully operating companies.
In economic sense innovation is a new method for satisfying consumers’ needs in higher quality than earlier. Consequently, from company aspect it has enormous significance in acquiring long-lasting competitive benefits, and in reaching long-terms success in marketing it is an unquestionable and inevitable factor.
Innovation and its creation have been affected by the hereinafter mentioned factors:
The prior aim is to satisfy the local costumers’ demands; consequently the given rural enterprise should principally suit for this group. A novel claim, such as the appearance of an additive free product, made exclusively from bio raw materials, results in the evolving of the innovation process, that could open new market, or may make an opportunity for the enlargement of the existing market share for the company. The contiguous observing of the claims and trend of the market is a crucial criterion. According to the latest research of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) urban citizens expect neighbouring rural regions to appear like safety food service providers in their consumer attitude. However, in our country this asterism is in its initial phase, but then governmental and rural participants possess promising intention according to which rural region would appear as a supplier zone in the collaboration of the regional economy.
Building out close connection with deliverers (suppliers, manufacturers) is a significant element of success-oriented ventures, since the trustworthy commodity provisions stand as a guarantor for perfect conditions of production, hereby the attainment of enterprising targets. Ventures strive for hunt up the most trusted suppliers, those could be promoted most effectively by deepened regional partnership. Parties intend to form long – term relationship, that lies on comparative advantages, and basically serves the interest of the given region. The emphasis is to be put on quality so the competitive tendering of the suppliers together with the constant inspection of the quality with substantive qualifiers (In Eger and its periphery it is the EGERFOOD regional knowledge centre) are established customs. A conscious and responsible venture never compromise in quality in order to save price, since in the case of quality problems consumers mays immediately change their consumer behaviour.
In the case of rural and defined measure communities, personal publicity and confidence are the earnest grassroots of balanced measuring quality functioning of regional operating ventures those mostly produce for local markets.
In their functioning a significant feedback is perceived towards the local society. ( by the right of the experience of the German Regionen Aktiv. ‘LEADER – like’ rural area developmental program.)
Ventures has a special race condition in rural areas, since they are rather the losers of the aggressive market conqueror business policy of the multinational companies, not the
victims of the locally occurring same- sized competition.
Nowadays the ruling unfavourable situations seem to be changed OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) : Kernbereiche der Unternehmensförderung und der KMU-Entwicklung2005.
The basic thesis of economics emphasize the hereunder doctrines:
The situation of competitors should be taken into consideration both when positioning and choosing the market segment. Therefore competitor analysis is important in effective strategic planning. The venture strategy is elaborated by the management of the company on the basis of the information about competitors, accordingly the construction of the accurate and detailed evaluation and innovation itself could serve as a competitive advantage for the venture.
The difference merely is that the competitor (multinational company) doesn’t play in the same league, which although could compete in marketing flexibility , but will never be an accepted elemental participation of the market of the local region, since it is unable to get rid of its own artificially created personality and is not eligible for genuinely address costumers.
It is not even enable to do this since doesn’t possess traditional impregnations in local economy and hereby the role of micro and minor venture will be valorised, since the production, assimilation and sale of the commodities manufactured by regional partnership are part of the same product field, the final destination of sale as a natural person occur in front of the consumer. So multinational companies will never own real personality, since they tempt with their price and the extra services instead of personal service based on trustfulness and publicity.
For rural ventures innovation itself is the local reputational advantage , and the multi that is in a necessity of the atmosphere of personal publicity and personal responsibility is not able to compete the „minors”
Of course there are attempts to tighten assimilation to the local economy, but these are considerably enforced attempts, and the quality of the service is not based on the too directed interaction.
The atmosphere of a personal confidence could be created by a company what operates outside the region , too, but the existence of local product field is for the local businesses.
If the consumer knows the elements of the local product orbit, and perhaps concerned in its maintaining, the local and traditional ventures could acquire competition advantages.
In our particular case at the end of the innovation process, I mean at market prelude we are not able to talk about competition , or just slightly. Of course implementing market strategy is not an easy task, since multinational companies has complete strategic- designing department at their disposal, although this disadvantage could be reduced by forming rural developmental network and by channels of community promotions.
When forming the brand distinctions from rival products are extremely important since the product and services of local companies could only be identified in this way., if those carry the message of the given region that build upon tradition, moreover quality is guaranteed by miscellaneous build in certificates and origin- labelling. (See Chapter 10)
Figure 35. The peculiar logo of local products derives from the island of Rügen (source: LandInform)
The activities of businesses have always stood in dependency relationship with the state. Many economic theories deal with the function of the state. According to singular theories state intervention is a requisite step, while accordance with other theories market is needed to be free from bureaucratic regulation (neoliberal economic policy).
Otherwise, the father of neoliberalism, Milton Friedmann himself made negative statements upon the poverty increasing influence of neoliberalism and upon the impetuosity of the absolutism of global stock. (BOAS et.al 2009)
At the present time innovation is regarded to the objective of common interest by the European Union, so thus miscellaneous subvention framework programmes were worked up so as to enhance economic efficiency, hereby focusing on workplace creating promoting subvention for sustainable development.
Even rural businesses start to recognize the fact that they need strategic partners for effective economic functioning. The aim of strategic federation is the enlargement of the extant resources and facilities as well as minimising the expenditures.
In the case of cooperation based upon produce manufacturing and service providing the two businesses jointly come out to the market in the case of the same product or service. Cooperation could focus on collecting set up of marketing activities, these are promotion federations. In the case of logistic fellowship one of the companies provides logistic service for the product of the other company, it could be storing or delivering. Cooperation based on pricing policy means that one or more companies contracted in a special price, in most cases it means the preferential recourse of the services of each other, for instance when hotels and rent-a car businesses offer price reduction to each others.
Environment has a special role in the life of ventures. The technological environment most of all influences the economic development. As a consequence of new technological devices efficiency as well as profit could be extended.
New technology always replaces the old, thus often results in the change of paradigm.
However users of the old technology try to confront with changes but they gradually lag behind the competition, and will disappear from the market.
Thus it is very important to sustain the adaptive ability of the technological environment in rural areas, those could be enhanced by specialization, or organizing partnership network or forming clusters.
Natural environment also influences business activities. It has to be emphasized separately that the strongly unbalance and decayed quality environment, that has an essential impact on our everyday life.
Every people is interested in confining branching pollution, however it is difficult to find the solution. Although both researchers, politicians, green parties, environment protection activists make efforts against environment damaging, however it is a paradox that if China,-one of the biggest economic engine of the world,-had more strictly complied with all the environment protection regulations that would take away the biggest part of the growing potential, as it would have a significant effect on global market, too. (World bank: Cost of Pollution in China Economic Estimates of Physical Damages 2007).
However strict environment protection regulations are valid on company level, and every company must obey these regulations. Still, economic and environmental interest often confronted. Environment- awareness means extra cost for companies, so we must strive for launch and use programs that has no extra expenses for the company.