Ugrás a tartalomhoz

Plant Physiology

Ördög Vince, Molnár Zoltán (2011)

Debreceni Egyetem, Nyugat-Magyarországi Egyetem, Pannon Egyetem

Chapter 6. Questions

Chapter 6. Questions

What is the importance of water in a plant's life?

What kind of driving forces are involved in water movement?

What are the components of plant water potential?

How plant water potential can be measured?

What is the role of root hairs in water uptake?

How the water is absorbed and moved from soil to plant's canopy?

What transpiration types exist in plant kingdom?

What are the main characteristics of plant water status?

A decrease or cessation of leaf expansion is an early response to water stress. Provide a mechanism for this response.

Explain the role of the stomatal response to abscisic acid in plant tolerance to water stress.

What does a plant need to grow from seed and complete its life cycle?

What is an essential element? How many have been identified?

What is a mineral deficiency? How can a mineral deficiency be recognized?

How can farmers benefit from nutrient analysis?

What is the importance of micorrhizal fungi?

What is meant by the term “passive transport” and “active transport”?

Both membrane channels and carriers show changes in protein conformation. What is the role of such conformation changes (a) in channels, and (b) in carriers?

In the transport of an ion from the soil solution to the xylem, what is the minimum number of times it must cross a cell membrane?

Describe the pressure-flow model of translocation in the phloem.

What is the relation between the electromagnetic spectrum of solar radiation and the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll?

Describe the two photosystems and provide two lines of experimental evidence that led to their discovery.

What is the role of electron transport in oxygen-evolving photosynthesis? Describe the path traveled by an electron in the electron transport process.

Can ATP synthesis take place in thylakoid membranes kept in the dark? Explain your answer.

Describe the different types of carbon reactions of photosynthesis in higher plants.

If the level of atmospheric CO2 were to double, how would the photosynthesis be affected? Explain your answer.

How many environmental factors can limit photosynthesis at one time?

Discuss the main functions of secondary metabolites in plants and relate these functions to the sites of accumulation of secondary compounds in the plant.

What are terpenes chemically, and how are they synthesized?

How do alkaloids differ structurally from the other secondary compounds? Given their biological effects, how might they function ecologically?

Do plants, like animals, have an immune response to pathogens?

Distinguish between growth, differentiation, and development.

Describe the significance of meristems.

What is the process of seed formation from a fertilized egg cell?

What is the importance of programmed cell death (PCD) in a dicot plant's life?

What characteristics contribute strength and rigidity to a cell wall?

What limitations does the cell wall place on the growth of plant cell?

What is the physiological significance of physiological ecotypes, or photoperiodic races within a species that are chracterized by different critical daylengths?

Why is it necessary for a hormone to be rapidly turned over?

Can you suggest the physiological advantage of the accumulation of auxin conjugates in some seeds?

How is the polar auxin transport accomplished?

What are the major physiological role of auxin?

Describe the main physiological effects of gibberellins and cytokinins in a plant's life.

What is the evidence that cytokinins are required for the maintenance of the shoot apical meristems?

What is the apparent role of gibberellins in the shoot apical meristems?

What are the agronomical purposes of gibberellins and cytokinins?

What unique problems are related to the study of ethylene as a plant hormone? What is the evidence that ABA mediates responses to water stress?

How are gibberellins and brassinosteroids related biosynthetically?

Describe the hormonal changes that occur during seed development, maturation, and germination.

Discuss the evidence for the role of auxin in the following physiological phenomena: apical dominance, lateral and adventitious roots, leaf abscission, floral bud development, fruit development.

Give several examples of the effects of gibberellins on plant development. Have any of these responses been used commercially?

Discuss five physiological responses regulated by ethylene.

What are the sources of natural plant hormones used in plant production?

Define plant stress, stress tolerance, and acclimation to stress.

If plants require light for photosynthesis, explain why plants can be exposed to too much light.

What is osmotic stress? Explain how plant cells use compatible solutes to achieve osmotic adjustment.

Why do cold-acclimated winter cereals exhibit an increased tolerance to photoinhibition?

What are heat shock proteins?