Ugrás a tartalomhoz

SOCIAL STATISTICS

Renáta Németh, Dávid Simon

ELTE

SOCIAL STATISTICS

SOCIAL STATISTICS

Németh, Renáta

Simon, Dávid

2011


Tartalom

Introduction
1. Lecture 1
What is social statistics? Why do we need it?
Interpretation pitfall I: Ecological fallacy
Interpretation pitfall II: An empirical relationship does not imply causation
Interpretation pitfall III: Simpson’s paradox
2. Lecture 2
Role of statistics in social research
Levels of measurement
Unit of analysis
3. Lecture 3
Frequency distributions for interval-ratio variables
4. Lecture 4
Motivation
Bar chart
Frequency polygon
Stem-and-leaf plot
How to lie with graphic presentations?
Changing the scale
Changing the range of the axis
Misleading 3D charts
„Valid” charts
5. Lecture 5
Topics
Measures of central tendency
Mode
Characteristics of the mode
Median
Finding the median in sorted data (few observations)
Finding the median in a frequency distribution (great number of observations)
Again about percentiles
The mean
Properties of the mean
The shape of the distribution
Choosing the appropriate measure of central tendency
6. Lecture 6
Topics
Introduction
The index of qualitative variation (IQV)
Range
Interquartile range
Box plot
The variance and the standard deviation
Choosing the appropriate measure of variability
Special measures of variability
Decile ratio
Gini coefficient, Lorenz curve
7. Lecture 7 Measuring the relationship between two variables 1: nominal and ordinal cases
Introduction
The relationship of nominal or ordinal variables with crosstabs
Dependent and independent variables
Example for investigating dependency
The existence of a relationship
Strength of relationship
The direction of the relationship
Control: introducing one more variable
Controlling the relationship
An apparent relationship
The ’intermediary’ relationship
Modifying the effect
8. Lecture 8: Relationship between nominal and ordinal variables: associational indices
Introduction
PRE, proportional reduction of error
Lambda’s characteristics
Other associational indices for nominal variables
Revision Questions
For further thought
Associational indices of ordinal variables
The characteristics of Somer’s d:
Another index: Spearman or rank correlation
Characteristics of Spearman (rank) correlation:
Revision Questions
For further thinking
Summary
Example
9. Lecture 9: Associational indexes:high level of measurement
Introduction
Joined distribution
Visualization
Linear relationship
The intercept
Non-linear relationship
Deterministic vs stochastic relationship
Linear regression
Characteristics of b
Covariance, Pearson’s correlation
When shall not we use correlation and linear regression?
Summary
10. Lecture 10: Distributions
Normal distribution
Transformation (standardisation): how to arrive at any other normal distribution from the standard normal distribution or vice versa.
The Standard Normal Distribution Table and how to use it – percentages.
Lognormal distribution
Normal distribution found in real life
11. Lecture 11: Social indicators
Introduction
Definitions and expectations
Types of indicators and indicator systems
’Quality of Life’ approach
Composite indices: Human Development Index
Calculating HDI: income
Calculating HDI: life expectancy
Calculating HDI: education
Calculating the complete HDI
HDI in some countries in 2010
Some income distribution and poverty indices
Poverty indices
Literature: