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Electric Vehicles

Gyuláné Vincze, Gergely György Balázs

Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Electric Power Engineering

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

The Electric Vehicles electronic lecture note is made for students of the BME Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Electric Machines and Drives MSc branch. The main purpose of this lecture note is to give an overview of the electric vehicles’ drive system solutions, main structural principles, on-board and external joint electric equipments.

Generally the vehicles are the appliances of the public and cargo transportation that possess various size and comfort. The usual categorization with some typical vehicle types is listed as follows:  

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Vehicle categorization

The drive system solutions of the listed vehicles are disparate therefore these cannot be discussed generally together because these belong to different fields.  

This electronic lecture note is only dealing with electric driven land-craft vehicles. Apart from the conventional vehicles it discusses in detail the novel levitated vehicles.

Only those vehicles are called electric vehicles which drive or moving is fully or partly performed by electric motor. Nevertheless all of the modern vehicles contain electric systems with different power level and various electric motor-driven on-board devices; there are numerous vehicles which are not driven by electric motor.

The vehicle design is one of the most complicated engineering creations moreover the vehicles’ electric drive system design is the top of the electrical engineering profession. This lecture note shows the variety, the special features and the specialty of the electric vehicles drive systems and for the easier comprehension it reviews the basic operation of the drive systems. It presents the most typical drive solutions and structures through the examples of concrete electric driven vehicles.

It is assumed that the students possess general electric engineering and basic drive technical knowledge, and they interested in this subject.

The lecture note consists of 8 main chapters.

The 1st chapter is dealing with the tractive requirements of the land-craft vehicles. It shortly summarizes the tractive force, the brake force and the tractive power demands requiring for moving of the vehicles, and other control functions need for safety moving.  

The 2nd chapter summarizes the possible tractive methods, the mechanical drive system solutions and the electric motor implementation of the land-craft vehicles. The chapter gives an overview of the electric drive system sizing for given tractive demand.  

The 3rd chapter presents the electric vehicles’ power supply methods. Larger part of this chapter is dealing with the overhead line power supply systems and the requirements of the network friendliness but other power supply methods are reviewed also, including the power supply of the levitated vehicles.

The 4th chapter presents the conventional brush-commutated DC motor driven public transport and rail vehicles through some vehicle examples.

The 5th chapter is dealing with the field orientated, inverter-fed induction motor drive systems, used for traction and presents some concrete vehicles equipped with modern drive system.

The 6th chapter presents the field orientated, inverter-fed synchronous motor drive systems, used for traction. The most interesting application, the linear synchronous motor traction is detailed.

The 7th chapter is dealing with the levitation methods and special problems of the levitated vehicles.

The 8th chapter is focusing on the drive system technics of the electric and hybrid-electric cars.

The following key words are used in this lecture note:

  1. The vehicle electric drive performs the moving of the vehicle. The electric drive contains the electric motor, the power electronic circuit and the control and protective devices.

  2.  The main electric circuit consists of the electric circuits of each element required for the vehicle traction and operation.  

  3. The auxiliary devices are not involved in the vehicle traction. These devices are for signaling, controlling, protecting, information transferring and comfort, heating and cooling.

  4. The auxiliary circuit consists of the electric circuits of each element performing operation of the auxiliary devices.