Gyuláné Vincze, Gergely György Balázs
Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Electric Power Engineering
Table of Contents
The electric energy supply of the electric vehicles is performed by the following three methods:
The external energy supply is generally the national electric energy network directly or converted by intermediate devices. The vehicle is operable if the energy transmittance is fulfilled. The energy transmission can be fulfilled by a trolley contact at vehicles powered by overhead-line. At inductive energy supply the transmission is fulfilled by induction without connections. Basically there are three types of vehicles powered by overhead-line: electric vehicles of the urban public transport (tram, trolley), urban rail vehicles (metro, suburban railways) and railway vehicles. Inductive energy transmission can be found at high-speed linear motor driven vehicles. The solar cell is a special solution for the external power supply.
Most commonly the battery is t he elec t r ic energy storage device that is delivered by the vehicle. The stored electric energy is applicable for the traction of the vehicle (electric car, forklift truck) or in most of the cases it powers just the auxiliaries. Apart from the batteries, ultracapacitors or fly-wheels can be applied independently, or as a secondary energy storage device. The conditions of the energy storage devices shall be continuously checked, the recharging should be provided periodically.
The diesel-electric locomotive is operated by chemical energy delivered o n the vehicle. A diesel aggregator is the electric energy source of a diesel-electric locomotive. The hybrid-electric vehicle is similar. Its design is based on different combinations of internal combustion engine (diesel or Otto-engine) and electric generator. The fuel-cell can be the power source of a vehicle that is operating with hydrogen (sometimes with methanol). Gas turbine powered electric vehicles also exist. At the former mentioned vehicles the stored chemical energy is transformed to electric energy on-board. The refueling of these vehicles should be provided periodically.
The range of the vehicle is the maximum route that can be achieved by a “non-external energy powered” vehicle with one energy charge.