Ugrás a tartalomhoz

Európa társadalomtörténete a 20. században

Tomka Béla (2009)

Osiris Kiadó

6. A jóléti állam

6. A jóléti állam

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Statistics of OECD Member Countries. Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Pa- pers. No. 17. Paris: OECD, 1996. 3-7.

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  2. Ritter: Der Sozialstaat. 7-17.

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  4. Kaelble: A Social History of Western Europe. 80-81. Anthony I. Ogus: Landesbericht Grossbritannien. In Köhler-Zacher (Hrsg.): Ein Jahrhundert Sozialversicherung. 299. Yves Saint-Jours: Landesbericht Frankreich. In Köhler-Zacher (Hrsg.): Ein Jahrhundert So- zialversicherung. 204. Alfred Maurer: Landesbericht Schweiz. In Köhler-Zacher (Hrsg.): Ein Jahrhundert Sozialversicherung. 764.

  5. A társadalombiztosítással kapcsolatos törvénykezésre különböző nyugat-európai országokban: Flora-Alber: Modernization, Democratization and the Development of the Welfare States in Western Europe. 48-70. Detlev Zöllner: Landesbericht Deutschland. In Köhler-Zacher (Hrsg.): Ein Jahrhundert Sozialversicherung. 83-92. Saint-Jours: Lan- desbericht Frankreich. 209-212. Ogus: Landesbericht Grossbritannien. 334-342. Her- bert Hofmeister: Landesbericht Österreich. In Köhler-Zacher (Hrsg.): Ein Jahrhundert Sozialversicherung. 533-588. Maurer: Landesbericht Schweiz. 780-788.

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  7. Alber: Vom Armenhaus zum Wohlfahrtsstaat. 27. Flora-Heidenheimer: The Historical Core and Changing Boundaries of Welfare State. 27. Peter Flora: Solution or Source of Crises? The Welfare State in Historical Perspective. In W. J. Mommsen (ed.): The Emer- gence of the Welfare State in Britain and Germany, 1850-1950. London: The German Historical Institute, 1981. 388. Arnold J. Heidenheimer – Hugh Heclo – Carolyn Teich Adams: Comparative Public Policy: The Politics of Social Choice in America, Europe, and Japan. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. 229.

  8. Saundra K. Schneider: The Sequential Development of Social Programs in Eighteen Welfare States. Comparative Social Research, vol. 5 (1982) 195-219.

  9. Manfred G. Schmidt: Sozialpolitik. Opladen: Leske und Budrich, 1988. 119-120.

  10. Alber: Vom Armenhaus zum Wohlfahrtsstaat. 47.

  11. Alber: Vom Armenhaus zum Wohlfahrtsstaat. 43.

  12. A kiadások mellett további jellemzők elemzésének szükségessége mellett érvel: G0sta Esping-Andersen: The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990. 19. A magyar nyelvű irodalomban: Tóth István György – Csaba Iván (szerk.): A jóléti állam politikai gazdaságtana. Budapest: Osiris, 1999. 16-18.

  13. Flora: Solution or Source of Crises? 359.

  14. A társadalombiztosítási kiadásokra Nyugat-Európában lásd: Flora (ed.): State, Economy and Society in Western Europe. Vol. I. 456. ILO: The cost of social security: Fourteenth international inquiry, 1987-1989. Geneva: ILO, 1996. 108-165. és a sorozat más kötetei. Flora: Solution or Source of Crises? 359. Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.): Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft, 1872-1972. Stuttgart: Statistisches Bundesamt, 1972. 219-260. Wolfram Fischer: Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Staat in Europa, 1914-1980. In Fischer (Hrsg.): Handbuch der europaischen Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte. Bd. 6. 217.

  15. Saját számítás a következő munka alapján: Statistisches Bundesamt: Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft, 1872-1972. 219-224., 260. Jens Alber adatai szerint Németországban 1930- ban a GDP 7,8%-át fordították társadalombiztosításra. Alber: Vom Armenhaus zum Wohlfahrtsstaat. 60.

  16. A statisztika forrásai: ILO: The cost of social security: Eleventh international inquiry, 1978 Geneva: ILO, 1985. 57-58. ILO: The cost of social security: Fourteenth international inquiry, 1987-1989. Geneva: ILO, 1996. 74-75. ILO: World Labour Report 2000: Income Security and Social Protection in a Changing World. Geneva: ILO, 2000. 313. Flora (ed.): State, Economy, and Society in Western Europe. Vol. I. 456.

  17. Bizonyos országok esetében az ILO-statisztika több százalékponttal alábecsüli a kiadásokat más hasonló elveket érvényesítő adatgyűjtésekhez képest. Ez a különbség Németország esetében pl. 1983-ban 4,8 százalékpontos, Nagy-Britannia esetében 3,7 százalékpontos az Európai Közösség (EC) statisztikájához képest. Pekka Kosonen: European Integration: A Welfare State Perspective. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 1994. 52. Nem tudjuk kiiktatni a jóléti juttatások eltérő adóztatásának problémáját sem, ami pedig szintén több százalékponttal befolyásolhatja a nettó szociális kiadások színvonalát. OECD: Net Public Social Expenditure. OECD Working Papers. Vol. V. Occasional Papers, No. 19. Paris: OECD, 1997. 14. Hasonló módszertani problémákra: Willem Ade- ma: Uncovering Real Social Spending. The OECD Observer, vol. 37 (no. 211, 1998) 20-23.

  18. Az OECD adatai ugyanakkor nem tartalmazzák a közalkalmazottaknak nyújtott speciális jóléti juttatásokat, pl. a részükre folyósított állami nyugdíjakat, nyilván abból a szokásos megfontolásból, hogy ezek a jövedelem részét képezik. Fraternité Rt.: Jelentés a társadalombiztosítás reformjáról. Budapest: Fraternité Rt., 1991. 57. Az OECD adataira: Peter Flora (ed.): Growth to Limits: The Western European Welfare States Since World War II. Vol. 4. Berlin – New York: De Gruyter, 1987. 325-815. OECD: Social Expenditure, 1960-1990. Paris: OECD, 1985. 80. OECD: Social Expenditure Statistics of OECD Members Countries. Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers. No. 17. Paris: OECD, 1996. 19. UNESCO: Statistical Yearbook. 1993. Paris: UNESCO, 1993. 416-418. OECD: National Accounts: Main Aggregates, 1960-1997. Vol. I. Paris: OECD, 1999.

  19. Christopher Pierson: Beyond the Welfare State? Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991. 111.

  20. Maciej Zukovski: Pension Policy in Poland after 1945: Bismarck and Beveridge Tradi- tions. In John Hills – John Ditch – Howard Glennerster (eds.): Beveridge and Social Security: An International Perspective. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994. 155-156.

  21. Francis G. Castles: Whatever Happened to the Communist Welfare State? Studies in Comparative Communism, vol. XIX (1986) no. 3/4. 216-219.

  22. Béla Tomka: Western European welfare states in the 20th century: convergences and di- vergences in a long-run perpective. International Journal of Social Welfare, vol. 12 (2003) no. 4. 249-260.

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  27. Gauthier: The state and the family. 52.

  28. Detlev Zöllner: Landesbericht Deutschland. In Köhler-Zacher (Hrsg.): Ein Jahrhundert Sozialversicherung. 157.

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Die Entwicklung vom Zweiten Weltkrieg bis zur Gegenwart. In Peter A. Köhler – Hans

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  4. A jogosultak arányára lásd: Flora (ed.): State, Economy, and Society in Western Europe. Vol. I. 460-461. ILO: The cost of social security: Fourteenth international inquiry, 1987-1989. Geneva: ILO, 1996. 201-216. ILO: Yearbook of labour statistics. 1995. Geneva: ILO, 1996. 164-169.

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